As recently as the late 19th century sewerage systems in some parts of the rapidly industrializing United Kingdom were so inadequate that water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid remained a risk. From as early as 1535 there were efforts to stop polluting the River Thames in London.Beginning with an Act passed that year that was to prohibit the dumping of excrement into the river.
Leading up to the Industrial Revolution the River Thames was identified as being thick and black due to sewage, and it was even said that the river ?smells like death.?24 As Britain was the first country to industrialize, it was also the first to experience the disastrous consequences of major urbanisation and was the first to construct a modern sewerage system to mitigate the resultant unsanitary conditions.citation needed During the early 19th century, the River Thames was effectively an open sewer, leading to frequent outbreaks of cholera epidemics.
Proposals to modernise the sewerage system had been made during 1856, but were neglected due to lack of funds.However, after the Great Stink of 1858, Parliament realised the urgency of the problem and resolved to create a modern sewerage system.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_water_supply_and_sanitation
The difference between pipes and tubes is simply in the way it is sized.
PVC pipe for plumbing applications and galvanized steel pipe for instance, are measured in IPS (iron pipe size).
Copper tube, CPVC, PeX and other tubing is measured nominally, which is basically an average diameter.
For instance, 1/2" PeX tubing is the same size as 1/2" copper tubing.
1/2" PVC on the other hand is not the same size as 1/2" tubing, and therefore requires either a threaded male or female adapter to connect them.
When used in agricultural irrigation, the singular form "pipe" is often used as a plural.7 Pipe is available in rigid "joints", which come in various lengths depending on the material.Tubing, in particular copper, comes in rigid hard tempered "joints" or soft tempered (annealed) rolls.
Pipe wall thickness is denoted by various schedules or for large bore polyethylene pipe in the UK by the Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR), defined as the ratio of the pipe diameter to its wall thickness.
Pipe wall thickness increases with schedule, and is available in schedules 20, 40, 80, and higher in special cases.
The schedule is largely determined by the operating pressure of the system, with higher pressures commanding greater thickness.
Because piping and tubing are commodities, having a greater wall thickness implies higher initial cost.Thicker walled pipe generally implies greater durability and higher pressure tolerances.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pipe#Difference_between_pipes_and_tubes